Basic Knowledge


1. About smart card

The full name of IC card is integrated circuit card, also called smart card, which can read & write. The IC card is of high capacity, encryption functions, reliable data record and convenience. such as: payment system and so on.
        According to the connection mode, the IC card can be divided into contact and contactless IC card. The contact IC card is of operation-slow, environment unadaptable and poor reliability etc. Above limit the application in some important field. The contactless Ic card appeared in the mid 90s. It is of adapting to bad environment, good electrical and mechanical performance and high security. And it will be the mainstream of the most widely used card instead of the contact IC card gradually.
        Contactless IC card(rf card) is a new technology which developed in recent years in the world. Its chip is sealed wholly in the card. Besides, there is a miniature antenna in the card which guarantees the communication between the chip and the reader. It communicates through radio wave and reaction of the electromagnetic field. And it combines the RFID and IC technology successfully. Two problems--no power in the card and free in contact were softed, which is a breakthrough in the electron device field.
        The technical superiority is no contact between the card and the reader when exchanging information.commonly the card storage capacity is between 256b and 72KB. At present the most popular technology is Legic, MIFARE, DESfire, iCode and HID iclass etc, also follows ISO14443A&B. Usually it is used for the entrance guard, bus&subway payment syetems etc. Contactless IC card mostly use the chip of MIFARE one S50 or S70 which is produced by PHILIPS company. It accounts for about 80%, so the contactless IC card is customarily called "M1 card" by a lot of people.
The contactless IC card:
        1). RF encryption type(RF ID) is usually called ID card. The information was exchanged by radio wave. There is no mechanical contact between the reader and the card. such as: HID, INDARA, TI, EM etc.
        2). RF memory card(RF IC) is usually called contactless IC card. The information was exchanged also by radio wave. It is added RF transceiver circuit on the basis of memory card. such as: MIFARE ONE.
        3). RF CPU card(RF CPU) is usually called active card which has power supply in the card. It is added RF transceiver circuit on the basis of CPU card. The CPU card is of his own COS operation system, so it deserves to be called the real smart card.


2. The RF standard for the smart card
        The information is exchanged between the card and reader through radio wave, so it need both of them follow the same communication protocol. At present, the domestic commonly used contactless IC card protocol: ISO14443A, ISO14443B , ISO15693 etc.commonly used IC card:
        ISO14443A: Common logical encryption card---MIFARE 1K, MIFARE 4K, FM11RF08, Ultralight, Ultralight C, MIFARE Mini, DESfire; CPU card---MIFARE ProX T=CL TYPE A.
        ISO14443B: Common logical encryption card---SR176, SRI512, SRI1K, SRI2K, SRI4K, SRIX4K; CPU card---AT88RF020 T=CL TYPE B.
        ISO15693: General label card---NXP I.CODE SLI, TI Tag_it HF-I, ST LRI.


3. About SAM card
        SAM is the abbreviation of Safe Authentication Module. In the process of using IC card, the data can be guaranteed safely by the key during the data is exchanged. SAM card himself is of key and calculation function. According to key, the SAM card: identity authentication key (SAM card), prepaid key(ISAM card), deduction key(PSAM card).
        The identity authentication key (SAM card) is generally done identity authentication for IC card by terminal equipment, to identify whether the card is effective. Prepaid card key (ISAM) is generally used in the card-provider. And the card need be encrypted&initialized meanwhile be filled money when using firstly. Deduction key(PSAM card) is generally used in the terminal equipment which safely deducts the money from the IC card. SAM card is the contact IC card according to ISO7816 protocol.